Art and culture is an important topic for UPSC and State PCS exam. At least 2-3 questions have been asked in every paper in the previous UPSC exam. Puppetry, Theatre Forms, Musical Instrument are important topics of art and culture. To help students in the upcoming exam, we are sharing you with Important notes on “Puppetry, Theatre Forms, Musical Instrument”



The root of the Puppetry is derived from the Latin word ‘ Pupa’ meaning a doll. India is said to be the puppet’s home, but its unlimited possibilities have yet to be awakened. In Tamil classic Silappadikaaram (written around 1st or 2nd century B.C.), the earliest reference to Puppetry is found.


String puppetry 1. Kathputli, Rajasthan

2. Kundhei, Orissa

3. Gombeyatta, Karnataka

4. Bommalattam, Tamil Nadu

Shadow Puppets 1. Togalu Gombeyatta, Karnataka

2. Tholu Bommalata, Andhra Pradesh

3.  Ravanachhaya, Orissa

Rod Puppets 1. Putul Nautch, West Bengal

2. Yampuri, Bihar

Glove Puppets Pavakoothu, Kerala


Different Forms of Traditional Theatre

Traditional theatre forms do not only embrace the interests of the common man, but they also include a classical element. However, this classical facet is regional, local and folk. Customs, Age-old forms and the desire to improvise are intermingled in traditional theatre.



Theatre forms Associated places
Bhand Pather Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir
Swang Rohtak, Haryana
Nautanki Lucknow and Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh
Raasleela Uttar Pradesh
Bhavai Gujarat
Ramman Uttarakhand
Jatra Bengal
Maach Madhya Pradesh
Bhaona Assam
Tamaasha Maharashtra
Dashavatar Konkan and Goa regions
Krishnattam Kerala
Mudiyettu Kerala
Koodiyaattam Kerala
Yakshagaana Karnataka
Therukoothu Tamil Nadu
Karyala Himachal Pradesh
Theyyam Kerala


Musical instruments

Instruments Source of sound (sound produced via) Examples
Tata Vadya Vibration of a string or chord. Guitar, Veena, Sitar, Rudraveena, Sarod, Mandolin, Gotuvadyam
Sushira Vadya By blowing air into a hollow column Flute, Shehnai, Nadaswaram
Ghana Vadya Played with a striker or hammer Chipli, Sticks, Clappers, Taal
Avanaddha Vadya By striking the animal skin Drums, Nagada, Table