Medieval History of Madhya Pradesh
The medieval period was an important period in Madhya Pradesh History. It has been seen that many questions have been asked in MPPSC and other state govt exams from the “Medieval History of Madhya Pradesh”.
As we reached towards an era of the medieval period, the Muslims started to explore the land of Madhya Pradesh. Sultan Alauddin Khalji was the first one to reach Malwa and rule it. Then Tughlaqs came to the power and ruled the region for some time.
Since 1305, Malwa with the capital Dhar had been under the control of Tughlaqs. In 1401, Dilawar Khan and his son Alp Khan declared themselves independent and marked the beginning of a dynasty.
- After Tughlaqs, Dilawar Khan Gauri established an independent sultanate at Malwa.
- In 1392, Dilawar Khan asserted his freedom and founded an independent kingdom known as Malwa Sultanate.
- He chose Dhar as its capital and later shifted it to Mandu. Mandu was renamed as Shadiabad (the city of joy).
- His son Alp Khan changed his name to Hoshang Shah and founded Hoshangabad.
- But the Gauris couldn’t rule for long. After poisoning the grandson of Hoshang Shah, Mohammad Khalji came to the throne.
- The dynasty was replaced by Mehmood Shah I who proclaimed himself king on 16th May 1436.
- Mahmud Shah founded the Khalji Dynasty in Malwa.
- Mahmud Shah, I was succeeded by his son Ghiyas-ud-din.
- The last days of Ghiyas-ud-din were troublesome as he saw the struggle of throne between his two sons – Nasir-ud-din and Ala-ud-din. Nasir-ud-din emerged victorious and ascended the throne in 1500.
- Mohammad Shah II was the last ruler of this dynasty. He surrendered to Bahadur Shah, the Sultan of Gujarat in 1531.
- During 1531-37, the kingdom was ruled by Bahadur Shah through the Mughal Emperor Humayun. He ruled it for a short period during 1535-36.
- In 1537, Qadir Shah, an officer of previous Khalji dynasty regained the control over some parts of Malwa.
- In 1542, Sher Shah Suri conquered the kingdom defeating him and appointed Sujaat Khan as his governor.
- Shujaat Khan’s son Baz Bahadur succeeded him declaring himself independent in 1555.
- In 1561, Akbar’s army attacked Malwa and defeated Baz Bahadur.
Akbar was the first Mughal emperor to focus on Malwa. Baz Bahadur was defeated by Mughal army and he fled to Chittor. It became a subah of Mughal empire and Abdullah Khan became its first governor. Under the efficient and firm control of Mughals Malwa remained peaceful and firm till 1731 when it passed to the Marathas.
Some other contemporary dynasties of that period
- Gonds Dynasty
- There is no enough evidence which proves the origin of Gonds in Madhya Pradesh.
- Around 1400 AD when the Kalchuris became weak, Gonds established themselves as a powerful and independent force.
- The golden period of Gondwana came under the leadership of Sangram Shah (1480-1530).
- The Gond king of Gatha Katanga, Aman Das assumed the title of Sangram Shah. His son Dalpat married the princess Durgavati who was the daughter of Salbahan, the Chandel Rajput king of Mahoba.
2. Kaccha Paghatas Dynasty
- The origin of this dynasty is not sure.
- We have ample record about one of the kings Vajradaman through the many inscriptions around the Gwalior fort.
- They were driven out of the fort by the Muslim invader Ghauri. After them, in the mid-12th century, the Gwalior-Shivpuri area was ruled for a short period by minor rulers.
3. Tomara Dynasty
- In 1398, after Timur invaded Gwalior, the Tomaras took over the fortress of Gwalior.
- The area of Morena, Bhind and Gwalior in the northern Madhya Pradesh is referred to as ‘Tomarghar’ meaning ‘Home of Tomaras’ due to its large population of Tomar Rajputs.
- The most notable ruler of Tomara dynasty in this area was Man Singh Tomar (1486-1517).
- After the death of Aurangzeb (1707), the Mughal control over Madhya Pradesh became weak considerably.
- The Marathas took control of most Madhya Pradesh between 1720 and 1760.
- It resulted in the establishment of semi-autonomous states under the nominal control of Peshwa of Puna.
- Most of the part of Malwa ruled by the Holkars of Indore around 16th century
- The Puars ruled Dewas and Dhar.
- The Bhonsles of Nagpur dominated Mahakoshal-Gondwana area.
- The Northern parts of the MP controlled by the Scindias of Gwalior.
The famous Maratha rulers of the region were Abhilyabai Holkar, Mahadji Scindia and Yashwantrao Holkar.
Along with these there were several other small states like Rewa, Bhopal and Orchha.